The History of Oxford University
By Tim Lambert
THE MIDDLE AGES
According to legend Oxford university was founded
in 872 when Alfred the Great happened to meet some monks there
and had a scholarly debate that lasted several days. In reality
it grew up in the 12th century when famous teachers began
to lecture there and groups of students came to live and study
in the town. The university was given a boost in 1167 when,
for political reasons, the English king ordered all students
in France to return home. Many of them came to Oxford.
From the start there was friction between students
and the townspeople. In 1209 the students left and went to
Cambridge. However the traders in Oxford soon missed the custom
of the students and persuaded some of them to return in 1214.
In that year the first chancellor was appointed, a man named
Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253).
At first the students lodged with the townspeople
or lived in halls. St Edmund Hall dates from 1238. In the
13th century the first colleges were founded. Each college
owned its own buildings. The colleges also owned land (today
many of them own investments). Each college was self governing.
The first college, University College, was founded in 1249
by William of Durham. (The oldest part of the existing buildings
dates from 1634).
Balliol College was founded in 1264 by John
de Baliol. He founded it as a penance after insulting the
Bishop of Durham. Merton College was founded in 1264 by Walter
de Merton. Merton library was built in 1379.
Exeter College was founded in 1314 by Walter
Stapledon for students from Exeter Diocese, 8 were to come
from Devon and 4 from Cornwall. Oriel College was founded
in 1324 by Adam de Brome. Queens College was founded in 1341
by Robert Eglesfield. He was the queen's chaplain and he named
it in her honour. In 1377 John Wycliffe was expelled from
Oxford University after he critisised some of the church's
After 1410 students were forbidden to lodge
with townspeople and had to live in halls of colleges. Eventually
most of the halls were replaced by colleges. However St Edmund
Hall survived till the 20th century when it became a college.
The Divinity School was built about 1426.
Lincoln College was founded in 1427 by the Bishop
of Lincoln. It was intended to train men to fight heresy.
The chapel was built in 1630. All Souls College was founded
in 1437 by Archbishop Chichele to commemorate Henry V and
all the men killed at Agincourt. Magdalen College was founded
in 1448 by William of Waynflet, Bishop of Winchester. Its
bell tower was built in 1509.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY 1500-1800
In the Middle Ages students learned from lectures
as books were rare luxuries. The situation changed when Caxton
introduced the printing press to England in 1476. Books became
far more common. In the Middle Ages students learned the seven
liberal arts of grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmatic, geometery,
astronomy and Music. In the 16th century they began to study
the humanities. In the Middle Ages ancient writers like Aristotle
were regarded as the final authority. Lecturing was a matter
of explaining what they meant. With the renaissance there
was a new spirit of enquiry.
Brasenose College was founded in 1509. Its name
comes from a bronze door knocker taken from a house in Stamford.
The Hall was built in 1663. The chapel was built in 1666.
Corpus Christi College was founded in 1516.
Christchurch College was founded in 1525 by Cardinal Wolsey.
In 1542 the chapel of Christchurch College became Oxford Cathedral.
Tom Tower (the college bell tower) was built in 1682 by Wren.
Trinity college was founded in 1555. Also in 1555 St Johns
College was founded. Jesus College was founded in 1571 by
In 1444 Duke Humfrey (younger brother of Henry
V) founded a library at Oxford. At the reformation it was
broken up and the books were sold. However in 1598 Sir Thomas
Bodley decided to restore it. The new library opened in 1603.
Bodley then decided to extend the library. He died in 1613
but work went on and the Bodleian Library was completed in
In 1621 a physic garden, where medicinal plants
were grown, was created at Oxford. It is now the Botanic Gardens.
Wadham College was founded in 1612 and Pembroke
College was founded in 1624. Oriel College was rebuilt in
the years 1619-42. In 1647 after the civil war Oxford University
was purged of royalists among its staff. After the restoration
in 1660 it was purged of puritans. The Sheldonian Theatre
was built by Wren in 1669. The Old Ashmolean museum was built
in 1683 (it is now the Museum of the History of Science. The
Clarendon Building was erected in 1713. Worcester College
was founded in 1714. Radcliffe Camera opened as a library
in 1749. Magdalen Bridge was built in 1782.
THE 19th CENTURY
The famous debating society, the Union Society
was formed in 1823. Oxford University press dates from 1478.
The present building was erected in 1830. The Ashmolean Museum
opened in 1845. The Taylor Institution was built in 1854.
University Museum of Natural History opened in 1860. The Clarendon
Laboratory was built in 1872. Pitt-Rivers museum was built
in 1885. Keble College was founded in 1868 to commemorate
John Keble (died 1866). It was built by the famous architect
William Butterfield (1814-1900). Hertford College was founded
in 1874. Mansfield College was founded in 1886. St Hughs College
was also founded in 1886.
From 1884 onwards women were allowed to attend
lectures and take university exams for the first time (although
they were not actually awarded degrees till 1920). Halls were
built for female students (later they became collges). Lady
Margaret Hall for women was founded in 1878 by Elizabeth Wordsworth.
Somerville College for women was founded in 1879. St Hildas
College was founded in 1893 by Dorothea Beale. The University
Act of 1854 made it possible for those who did not belong
to the Church of England to study at Oxford. In 1889 a dissenters
academy moved to Oxford. It is now Harris Manchester College.
Kellogg College for continuing education was founded in 1878.
Campion Hall (Jesuit theological college) was founded in 1895.
It was named after Edward Campion (1540-81). Ruskin Hall was
founded in 1899. It became Ruskin College in 1913.
THE 20th CENTURY
In 1902 Cecil Rhodes died. He left money to
provide sholarships for students from the colonies, the USA
and Germany. Rhodes House was built in 1929. The Bridge of
Sighs was built in 1914. St Peters College was founded in
1929. Nuffield College was founded in 1937. St Antonys College
was founded in 1948. St Annes College was founded in 1952.
Greyfriars Hall (a Fransiscan friary which dates from 1910)
was made a permanent private hall in 1957. So was Regents
Park College. St Edmund Hall was finally made a College in
1957. Linacre College was founded in 1962. St Catharines College
was founded in 1963. Wolfson College (originally Iffley College)
was founded in 1965. St Cross College was also founded in
1965. The Zoology and Psychology buildings at Oxford were
erected in 1970. Green College was founded in 1979. After
1974 more and more of the colleges at Oxford changed from
being single sex to being dual sex colleges. To date the only
exception is St Hildas. Blackfriars (a Dominican friary) was
made a permanent private hall in 1994. Wycliffe Hall (which
dates from 1877) followed in 1996.
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